Battery electric vehicles or EVs use an electric motor system in place of a normal gas engine. These vehicles are plugged in to charge and run on pure electric power, which means no exhaust fumes, or other fuel components such as fuel pump or fuel tank.
Here is a breakdown of the 9 key components of an EV. Click the photo to be referred to the U.S Dept of Energy website where you can compare EVs to Hybrids, and Gasoline cars.
- Battery (all-electric auxiliary): In an electric drive vehicle, the auxiliary battery provides electricity to power vehicle accessories.
- Charge port: The charge port allows the vehicle to connect to an external power supply in order to charge the traction battery pack.
- DC/DC converter: This device converts higher-voltage DC power from the traction battery pack to the lower-voltage DC power needed to run vehicle accessories and recharge the auxiliary battery.
- Electric traction motor: Using power from the traction battery pack, this motor drives the vehicle’s wheels. Some vehicles use motor generators that perform both the drive and regeneration functions.
- Onboard charger: Takes the incoming AC electricity supplied via the charge port and converts it to DC power for charging the traction battery. It also communicates with the charging equipment and monitors battery characteristics such as voltage, current, temperature, and state of charge while charging the pack.
- Power electronics controller: This unit manages the flow of electrical energy delivered by the traction battery, controlling the speed of the electric traction motor and the torque it produces.
- Thermal system (cooling): This system maintains a proper operating temperature range of the engine, electric motor, power electronics, and other components.
- Traction battery pack: Stores electricity for use by the electric traction motor.
- Transmission (electric): The transmission transfers mechanical power from the electric traction motor to drive the wheels.